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June-July 1985 .
No. 24
C'ing Into Turbo Pascal .......................................
Soldering: The First Steps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
Eight Inch Drives On The Kaypro ..............................
Kaypro BIOS Patch. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
Alternative Power Supply For The Kaypro . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
48 Lines On A BBI ........ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
Adding An 8" SSSD Drive To A Morrow MD-2 ...................
Review: The Ztime-I .......................................... .
BDOS Vectors (Mucking Around Inside CP
................. .
The Pascal Runoff
Regular Features
The S-100 Bus
In The Public Domain... ..
C'ing Clearly ............ .
The Xerox 820 Column ... .
The Slicer Column ........
The KayproColumn ..... .
Pascal Procedures ........ .
FORTH words
On Your Own ........... .
Technical Tips ........... .
Culture Corner. . . . . . . . . . ..
Future Tense
Tidbits. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ..
68000 Vrs. 80X86 .. . . . . . ...
MSX In The USA . . . . . . . ..
The Last Page ............
$545 "UNKIT"*
Jim Ferguson, the designer of the "Big Board" distributed by Digital
Research Computers, has produced a stunning new computer that
Cal-Tex Computers has been shipping for a year. Called "Big Board II", it
has the following features:
3A, +-12V
• "SASI" Interface for Winchester Disks
Our "Big Board II" implements the Host portion of the "Shugart Associates Systems
Interface." Adding a Winchester disk drive is no harder than attaching a floppy-disk
drive. A user simply 1) runs a fifty-conductor ribbon cable from a header on the board to
a Xebec controller that costs only $29S and implements the controller portion of the
SASI interface, 2) cables the controller to a Seagate Technology ST-S06 hard disk or
one compatible with it. and 3) provides power for the controller-card and drive. Since
our CBIOS contains code for communicating with hard-disks, that's all a user has to do
to add a.Winchester to a system!
4 MHz Z80-A CPU and Peripheral Chips
The new Ferguson computer runs at 4 MHz. Its Monitor code is lean, uses Mode 2
interrupts, and makes good use of the ZaD-A DMA chip.
• 64K Dynamic RAM
4K Static CRT RAM
24K E(E)PROM or Static RAM
"Big Board II" has three memory banks. The first memory bank has eight 4164 DRAMs
that provide 60K of user space and 4K of monitor space. The second memory bank has
two 2Kxa SRAMs for the memory-mapped CRT display and space for six 2732As, 2Kxa
static RAMs, or pin-compatible EEPROMS. The third memory bank is for RAM or ROM
added to the board via the STD bus. Whether bought as a bare board, an "unkit"*, or
assembled and tested, it comes with a 2732 EPROM containing Russell Smith's superb
• Two Synchronous/Asynchronous Serial Ports
With a Z8D-A SIO/O and a ZaD-A CTC as a baud-rate generator, the new Ferguson
computer has two full RS232-C ports. It autobauds on both.
A Parallel Keyboard Port
Four Other Parallel
Ports for User I/O
The new Cal-Tex single-board computer has one parallel port for an ASCII keyboard
and four others for user-defined
• Multiple-Density Controller for
SS/DS Floppy Disks
The new Cal-Tex single-board computer has a multiple-density disk controller. It can
use 1793 or aa77 controller chips since it generates the side signal with TTL parts. The
board has two connectors for disk signals, one with 34 pins for S.2S" drives, the other
with SO pins for a" drives.
• Two Z80-A CTCs
Eight Programmable Counters/Timers
The new Ferg uson computer has two ZaD-A CTCs. One is used to clock data into and
out of the ZaO-A
while the other is for systems and applications use.
• Vastly Improved CRT Display
The new Ferguson SBC uses a 6845 CRT controller and SMC 8002 video attributes
controller to produce a display rivaling the display of quality terminals. There are three
display modes: Character, block-graphics, and line-graphics. The board emulates an
ADM-31 with 24 lines of ao characters formed by a 7x9 dot matrix.
• PROM Programming Circuitry
The new Cal-Tex SBC has circuitry for programming 2716s, 2732(A)s, or pin-
combatible EEPROMs.
• CP/M 2.2**
CPIM with Russell Smith's CBIOS for the new Cal-Tex computer is available for $1S0.
The CBIOS is available separately for $2S.
• STD Bus
The new Ferguson computer has an STD Bus port for easy system expansion.
The "unkit" is
fully-socketed, wave-soldered "Big Board
NO soldering. All an "un kit" purchaser must do is carefully insert the
prime ICs we supply in the proper sockets and systematically proceed to
bring up and test the board.
"CP/M is
registered trademark of Digital Research.
The new Ferguson computer has a ZaD-A DMA chip that will allow byte-wise data
transfers at SOO KBytes per second and bit-serial transfers via the ZaD-A SIO at a80 Kbits
per second with minimal processer overhead. When a hard-disc subsystem is added.
the DMA chip makes impressive disk performance possible.
780 E. TRIMBLE ROAD #504· SAN JOSE. CA 95131 • (408) 942·1424
Terms: Orders paid for with a cashier's check or bank card will be shipped within three
working days. Orders paid for with a personal check will be shipped within three weeks.
Add $S for packing & shipping in North America.
P.O. Box 223
Bend, Oregon 97709
503-382-5060 Orders Only
503-382-8048 Tech. 9 - Noon
Operations Manager
David Pogue
Assistant Editors
Rebecca Ozrelic Gary Entsminger
Sandra Thompson
Graphic Design
Craig Lannes
Michael Odell
Technical Department
Dana Cotant
Eric Roby
Bruce Berryhill
Laine Stump
Advertising Director
Alice Holbrow
Staff Assistants
Dorcas Dsenis
Tracey Braas
Cary Gatton
Carla Miller
Laura Pendley
June-July 1985
The Micro Technical Journal
No. 24
On Your
When we printed labels for the April-
May issue this year we had over 9500
subscribers, and we celebrated the
10,000 mark in mid-April. We hit 5,000
almost exactly a year ago. (Now,
all come to SOG IV ... )
Speaking Of SOG IV
Don't forget to send in your SOG reg-
istration form. Let us know if you're
coming (or at least maybe coming), even
if you're not planning on rafting, dining,
staying in the dorms, or feeding the
chipmunks. (The dorm has been full
since mid April, but you'll find plenty of
space in local motels and camp
There is an Experimental Aircraft As-
sociation meet every year. During Au-
gust, every home-built, antique, and
non-antique private aircraft that isn't
cruelly tethered, takes its family and flies
to Oshkosh.
The airplanes park on a grass field next
to the airstrip, and the families camp for
a week under the wings of their craft (ev-
eryone wanders around meeting every-
one else).
I'd like to make the SOG into a similar
event. All I need to do is find an appro-
priate field and equip it with basic neces-
sities, and we could make SOG a real ex-
perience (not that a lot of families don't
already camp out when they come to the
In fact, the EAA brags that it has the
largest collection of porta-potties in one
place, at one time, in the world. They
might even have 5,000 of them. (Of
course, 5,000 potties seems like an im-
possible dream for Micro C, but ... )
32032 Support
The National 32032 and 32016 chips
have been languishing in the shadow of
and the 68000. Well,
Trevor Marshall, well known among the
Micro C crowd for his BBI winchester de-
signs, has spent the last year working on
a 32032 based co-processor board.
Trevor not only designed the system
(with the help of two friends), but he has
also written two articles (hardware de-
(continued on page 72)
Patti Morris
Martin White
Irish Setter
MICRO CORNUCOPIA supports systems
programming languages and builders of single
board and 5-100 systems.
Application to mail at second class postage
rates is pending at Bend, OR 97701 and addi-
tional entries. Published bimonthly by Micro
Cornucopia Inc., 155 NW Hawthorne, Bend,
Postmaster: Send address change
to Micro Cornucopia Inc., PO Box
OR 97709.
1 yr. (2nd Class)
1 yr. (Canada
1 yr. (Other foreign)
Make all orders payable in U.S. funds on a
U.S. bank, please.
ADVERTISING RATES: Available on request
(call Alice Holbrow).
CHANGE OF ADDRESS: Please send your
old label and new address.
VENDORS: We would very much like to re-
view your software, Single Board, and 5-100
products. Send materials to the Review De-
partment, Micro Cornucopia.
Copyright 1985 by Micro Cornucopia Inc.
All rights reserved
A Contest To Start All Contests
Usually people announce contests to
end all contests. This one is a beginning.
We've been sitting around trying to de-
cide how best to do it and, meantime,
nothing has happened.
We kicked around the idea of leaving it
open. You know, anyone can use any
language, create any length program, on
any subject.
"Too general," was the reaction from
all the reactionaries in the office. (What
else are they good for?)
We kicked around the idea of specify-
ing the language, the version of the lan-
guage, the subject, the program length,
and the color of the programmer's eyes.
"Too specific," was the reaction (from
was immediately obvious that we
were going to have to compromise on
this contest (or get rid of the reactionar-
ies). So we're specifying the language
(Turbo Pascal), but not the version.
We've sort of narrowed program length,
but not the subject. As for eye color,
we've chosen "bleery red streaks" so all
inveterate hackers will qualify easily.
Check out the contest article in this is-
sue. (Dr. Dobb's just held a contest and
had four entries. Let's see what we can
10,000 Subscribers
I remember when Lifelines magazine
announced they had 5,000 subscribers. I
was green with envy because Lifelines
and Micro C started about the same time.
We had around 500 circulation at that
time (5,000 seemed an impossible
dream), and I was still working at Tek-
tronix. I figured that about the time we
hit 1,000 I could quit Tek and cut my
workday back to 20 hours.
ISSN 0747-587X
Rebuttal For Kamas
I write to take friendly but spirited ex-
ception to Jack Rodenhi's lukewarm re-
view of Kamas (by Kamasoft, formerly
Compusophic Systems). My disagree-
ment is mostly on the degree of useful-
ness of an outline maker. In the few
months I've had Kamas, it's been a huge
help in getting me started on writing
To illustrate how I've integrated Ka-
mas into my own writing process, here's
my list of steps:
1. Make my outline with Kamas.
2. Enter as much text as I want into
text leaves.
3. Rearrange, fix stuff, and do general
4. Output a WordStar compatible file
to disk.
5. Call up WordStar for correcting and
final editing.
6. Call up The Word
for checking
spelling.and typos.
7. Switch back to WordStar and print
the thing out!
One other thing: Kamas is the only
outline making program available right
now for the CP/M-80 Kaypro. It's not as
we had a choice. It's either Kamas for
my Kaypro II or nothing.
Lucian W. Minor
Box 1101
Wellfleet MA 02667
dBASE to Turbo P. I decided to re-write
the entire program in Turbo Pascal. The
speed improvement is unbelievable! In
addition, there are many things Turbo P
has that dBASE II lacks: Procedures and
Functions, no 32 field limit, no 64 memo-
ry variable limit, etc. I feel free to be more
creative in my programming designs.
The 8-bit CP/M Compiler from Word-
Tech is a flop! It is far too slow to compile
and link, and the finished application
runs SLOWER than in dBASE II. It is
worth the effort to learn to program in
Turbo Pascal to do 8-bit CP/M program-
ming. The speed improvements over
dBASE II are enough by themselves.
And remember, Turbo P only adds 8K to
your total applications file size! (For the
RunTime library.)
Ralph E. Freshour
7 Silver Eagle Road
Rolling Hills Estates CA 90274
Kaypro Goes Arabic
This is in response to a question in Is-
sue 22 about Arabic capabilities for the
Kaypro. Zadian Research has an Arabic
conversion package which runs on the
Kaypro 2, 2X, 4, and 10. The package in-
cludes software to convert CP /M, Word-
Star, CalcStar, and other programs to
Arabic. It also comes with a set of pro-
grams for Arabic text processing and
printing and full documentation.
Zadian Research has also developed
an arabization kit for the Prowriter dot-
matrix printer. It allows the Prowriter to
print Arabic without losing any of its
English capabilities. Interspersed Arabic
and English and enlarged Arabic are also
The bilingual Kaypro models and the
arabization kit for the Prowriter printer
are available from the International Mar-
keting Department of Kaypro Corpora-
tion, 533 Stevens Avenue, Solana Beach,
CA 92075.
Zadian Research
1749 Jonathan Avenue
San Jose CA 95125
dBASE Advice
I read Issue 22 and wanted to com-
ment on your problems with using
dBASE II to print your mailing labels. I
have been programming in dBASE for
about 21/2 years, but the version num-
bers you mentioned were new to me.
Are they Kaypro dBASE version num-
bers? CP/M-80 dBASE II is currently up
to version 2.41. Version 2.3B was full of
bugs. 2.40 was a good improvement,
and 2.41 added a little more.
you're not
using at least 2.40, I'd suggest you get it.
It could be your problem. I wouldn't use
2.313 for anything!
I am about 90 percent finished re-writ-
ing The Master Check Register program.
(Version 2.0 will ·be called "Turbo
Cheques.") I started programming in
Turbo Pascal last summer, and saw the
advantages of switching over from
Editor's note:
Thanks for the comments, Ralph. The ver-
sion numbers were errors (mine).
am using
2.3b and 2040.
know that 2.3b is buggy, but
it leaves a little more space for memory varia-
bles so some of my programs run under it that
won't run under 2040. For instance, adding a
record to a large indexed file is much faster
2 .37
than under
040. Also, my copy of
2040 won't recognize the decimal point in the
picture clauses, so the gals prefer entering re-
ceipts under 2.37.
We're currently futzing over all our
dBASE routines to Turbo. I'll keep everyone
posted on how it works out.
Composite Video Update
Last week one of the local dealers sent
me to the Kaypro service clinic. You just
can't stay on top of things in this biz.
Since submitting my "Composite Vid-
eo" article (see Issue #22, page 50), I
have found that you can't use that ap-
proach on the 10. Now I've delved into
the 2-84/4-84 boards and the new "uni-
versal" board and found the same video
circuits as the 10. The graphics are nice,
but the hi-res method of achieving them
nukes my cheap video approach. How-
ever, my board does work on Xerox 820s.
Richard Bugg
2703 N.W. 20th
Oklahoma City OK 73107
Selling Prototypes
I'm wondering
there is some way to
profit from my ideas without having to
do everything myself. Is Micro C, or
some company that advertises in Micro
C, interested in buying working hard-
ware prototypes to be finished (e.g.
packaging, purchasing volume parts,
making PC boards, and writing soft-
ware) in exchange for royalties or some-
thing? Frankly, a $15 diskette of software
is poor compensation for several days
worth of work. Is there some other pos-
sibility I haven't thought of?
Phil Hunter
655 S. Fair Oaks #E-317
Sunnyvale CA 94086
Editor's note:
Sure, we'd be glad to look at any projects
you are working on. Give me a call and let's
discuss what you're doing. Maybe we can do
a combination article, circuit board, etc.
could also be a straight product.
Also, the disk is not the only payment for
an article. When we receive an article we send
out a disk, pronto. Then when we print the
article we send out additional goodies: the
Micro Cornucopia, Number 24, June-July 1985
special feature for each issue is worth
copies of Micro
and an author's T-shirt
(great for wearing at the SOG). The regular
articles are worth
three magazines, and
the author's T-shirt.
Tri-Flow Triumphs
I am in a group of nine engineers
working for Xerox, providing technical
hardware and software support to about
1300 technicians in four states for our
copier and duplicator lines.
A while back, in your Kaypro Column
of Issue 15, you stated that Xerox Service
Centers use WD-40 to lubricate disk
drives. To bring you and Micro C readers
up to date, in early 1984, Xerox cancelled
the use of WD.:.40 and began using Tri-
Flow in its products.
There were some good reasons for this
decision. Several fires in our copier/du-
plicators were caused when WD-40
spray came in contact with a high voltage
component, created an arc, and ignited.
In addition, we felt that although WD-40
did a good job of washing the old lubri-
cant from a bearing, its own lubricating
properties were very short lived.
The only good application I can think
of for WD-40 in any of our products is to
clean nasty, dirty drive chains
I am very much in favor of lubricating
the lead screws and slides with Tri-Flow.
The standard CP/M-80 that comes with,
the 820-11,8" SS, is configured for a head
step rate of ISms, which is too slow.
Any 8" drive in good shape will step
reliably at 10,6, or even 3 ms. I have seen
cases where new 8" drives out of the box
would not read at 6ms, but after the lead
screws were lubricated with Tri-Flow I
could change this time to 3ms and boot
99+ percent of the time.
wquld be wise, however, to keep a
disk in the archives with the step rate left
at ISms just in case the drives get gum-
my and you can't boot. All of my work-
ing disks have been at 3ms since I did the
Tri-Flow trick over a year ago.
Another tip: the oilite bearings found
in most drives should not be lubricated.
This is a porous metal which is im-
pregnated with oil during manufactur-
ing. Adding oil will free the bearing for a
short time, but will cause the pores to
clog and accelerate the wear of the bear-
The best way to remove dirt and gum
from these bearings is with a clean, dry,
lint-free cloth.
an oilite bearing is properly manu-
factured and, more importantly, stored
correctly prior to drive assembly (paper
or other absorbant packaging materials
will leach the oil from the bearing),
enough oil will remain after the bearing
is cleaned.
Doug Felton
1215 Oxley Rd.
Columbus OH 43212
The problem lies in the way SBASIC
uses the signed value of INTEGER varia-
bles when dealing with FOR. .NEXT
loops. (FOR. .NEXT uses signed integers
rather than unsigned integers like
WHILE.) The solution is to use a
WHILE .. DO structure.
max. memory DO BEGIN
Richard Levine
3105 Meadow Grove Dr.
San Diego CA 92110
Arizona Kaypro Users Group
As owner of a Kaypro dealership in
Phoenix and sponsor of the Arizona
Kaypro Users Group, I wrote to tell you
what tremendous success I've had with
the mods and upgrades for Kaypro sug-
gested in Micro C. I did nearly 100 5MHz
upgrades last year, and installed more
, than 30 disk drives behind Pro-8 ROMs
just last month. I find the instructions for
the upgrades very complete and quite
During this month's AKUG meeting
the club's officers demonstrated their 4-
drive Kaypros. Two of our officers (John
and Sharon Wertz) have 'his-n-hers'
Kaypros, each sporting four Mitsubishi
Our RBBS/RCPM is tagged "Lost
Dutchman's Gold Mine #2" and is de-
voted exclusively to Kaypro support and
utilities. The number is (602) 863-1435.
The board operates
baud, 24
hours a day. There is no fee, and our on-
ly request is that users log on with real
names, not handles.
Kelvin Paul Giles
13829 North 19th Ave.
Phoenix AZ 85023
TPA Program Fix
In Issue #23 Tom Geldner (in "Run-
ning In CP/M's TPA") gave a program-
ming example in SBASIC that was sup-
pose,d to dynamically size an array
according to available memory. His ex-
ample works, except that the way he did
it, the array will always have a maximum
size of 32767 even if more room is avail-
Packet Power
Maybe you already know this, but the
820 is becoming the standard for packet
radio mailbox systems. WORLI has writ-
ten an excellent package that includes,
among other things, automatic forward-
ing of mail to other mailboxes based on a
table of users for each mailbox. There's
also an add-on HDLC chip board to al-
low using it for a TNC. In our area the
packet users have grabbed about 20 of
them for various types of experiments.
Fun stuff!
Jon Pearce, WB2MNF
109 Pine Cone Trail
Medford NJ 08055
U.S. Robotics Modems OK
While leafing' through your Kaypro
Users C;atalog, I noticed on page
is a statement written about the U.S. Ro-
botics modems being unreliable for dial-
ing from preloaded directory files.
I have two U.S. Robotics modems, an
and in the past six months I have not ex-
perienced any difficulties in dialing from
the phone directories of TELPAC,
MDM712, KM300, KM1200, NDM730,
PHONE.001, etc. This is true for the
Kaypro 2-83 and Kaypro 2X.
George J. Parker
P. O. Box 14911
Micro CornucopIa, Number 24, June-July 1985
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